Manage PCB troubleshooting tools

November 23, 2020 by Charles Avitia

 

Sometimes your computer might display a message listing PCB troubleshooting tools. This problem can have several reasons.

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Most basic PCB problems require a few tools to troubleshoot. The most versatile tool is the multimeter. However, depending on the complexity of the circuit board and the problem, an LCR counter, oscilloscope, power supply, and logic analyzer may also be required to improve circuit performance.

 

 


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Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are manufactured in accordance with the technical requirements of the developer. ... However, mistakes can occur during construction or accidents along the way making them malfunctioning. In any case, it is sometimes necessary to repair a defective PCB or perform other maintenance.

If you need to repair a trace of a PCB, repair a PCB pad, or solve any other problem, it's important to understand the intricacies of PCBs. To get started, you need to talk about some basic facts about electricity.

Electricity

The electrical load powers everything from lamps, appliances and stereos to computers and factory equipment. The electricity itself is embodied only in the flow of electrons, which usually goes from a higher level to a lower level. Consequently, electric currents always pass from positive to negative voltage levels from the power supply.I.

In electrical circuits, the main elements are current and voltage, as well as capacitors, inductors and resistors. There are two types of electric current: alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). AC current is in the form of a curve or sinusoid, and DC is in the form of a straight line.

In hardware circles, the process of designing a printed circuit board where the various components that make up a circuit are brought together is called designing a printed circuit board.

Printed Circuit Boards

The name "printed circuit board" or "printed circuit board" for short circuits is used for most printed circuit boards. In the past, printed circuit boards were manufactured using a complex process that consisted of the detailed connection of wires at specific points. During this process, the chains were exposed and therefore tend to be damaged. It was only with the development of safer and more advanced design methods that the process reached the safety standards used today in the production of printed circuits.

Most printed circuit boards are present todayThere are four components: copper, fiberglass backing, screen printing and solder mask. In the early days of technology, printed circuit boards were made up of one layer. In contrast, modern printed circuit boards are made up of the multiple layers required for today's complex circuits.

There are many highlights in new PCBs, but they don't show up on PCBs. As a result, today's PCB troubleshooting and repair methods are more difficult than ever. On PCBs from the 80s and 90s, repairs could be done with automated test tools that simply don't work on today's PCBs.

Troubleshooting Old PCBs

On older PCBs, the techniques used to troubleshoot errors have been applied in several ways, including the following:

  • Checking solder joints
  • Identifying the problem
  • Troubleshooting specific parts
  • Testing Integrated Circuits
  • See the software manual.
  • Examination under a microscope
  • Function al tests
  • Most of these tests are ineffective for solving problems with newer PCBs. In response to these new challenges, today's printed circuit boards are subject to more sophisticated analysis.

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    Analog Signature Analysis

    A component can be tested with two sensors and a sine wave. A liquid crystal display (LCD) displays voltages, currents and phase shifts. The current is on the y-axis and the voltage is on the x-axis. You can see the resulting graph on the LCD screen.

    How To Diagnose PCB Problems

    Before proceeding with a PCB repair, you must first determine the cause of the problem. Diagnostic work on a faulty electronic board is performed in the following steps:

    • Determine the problem with the VI. AC voltage is used to check the number of unidentified contacts.
    • The next step is to determine where the problem occurs. This requires examination at the microscopic level to find the damaged elements.

    Finally, the defective part is removed from the PCB and replaced with a replacement part.

    How To Analyze PCB Diagnostics Results

    The circuit components are arranged in one of three combinations - mixed, parallel or sequential. Since it is usually impossible to find a signature, the easiest way to approach analysis is to compare the faulty card with a functional card of the same brand. This allows you to view shared signatures.

    To compare signatures, you need to look at the similarities between all bad cards and then compare them to cards without any problem. For each component, you need to calculate the current, inductance, resistance and voltage of each component and compare each signature on the failed PCB to determine what is wrong with it.

    Remove any dry or partially worn solder deposits on the defective PCB. This will update the dots and make it easier to verify the signature.

    With such a large number of traces on the board, there is a high probability that some traces will be damaged during the checksand. To repair the damage incurred during these steps, the jumper is a useful tool in track repairs.

    In the last step, each pin is tested to determine if it works. If the output and input of the spindle are within specifications, this means that the spindle is in good condition. Otherwise, it must be removed.

    How To Fix A PCB


    circuit board troubleshooting tools

    The pads are often damaged when the device is disconnected from the PCB. This is because the PCB and the circuit frame library share common connected traces that are clipped from each other when the device is removed from the PCB. However, you can fix the affected country / SMT trace combinations.

    When you sit down to repair a PCB, have the following materials handy:

    • C-Clips (Small)
    • Outline frame
  • Toothpicks
  • Feed
  • Isopropyl alcohol
  • Kapton ™ Ribbon
  • Knife
  • microscope
  • Orange sticks
  • Welding
  • Soldering iron
  • Napkins
  • You will also need an anti-static surface for cutting.

    PCB Troubleshooting And Troubleshooting Steps

    Step 1: Clean The PCB

    Use isopropyl alcohol to clean the damaged part of the circuit board. When the area is clean, dry the alcohol with compressed air.

    Step 2. Remove The Damaged Pad

    Using the Exacto knife, carefully remove the damaged pad.

    Step 3. Remove The Laminate Around The Spacer

    If you see burned laminate flooring on the affected area, be sure to remove it before proceeding.

    Step 4. Remove The Old Solder Mask

    Take a toothpick and remove the solder mask from the conductor.

    Step 5. Clean With Alcohol



    Wipe the area with isopropyl alcohol and dry with compressed air. Otherwise, you can use a cloth if it is free of lint.

    Step 6. Prepare The Driver

    Using suitable solder, prepare the section of the conductor to which the new conductor will be attached.

    Step 7. Examine And Select The Appropriate Diagram Frame

    Select A New Driver From The Options Available In The Overview. Use A Small Utility Knife To Remove The Selection From The Outline.

    Step 8. Prepare A New Pin / Wire

    Close the end of the new conductor facing the old trace with the appropriate alloyed solder. Then prepare the epoxy. Since the epoxy only lasts about 45 minutes, it is best to do small portions at a time. Apply epoxy to the PCB. To speed up the bonding process, place it in fresh air. You can also dry the attachments in the oven.

    Step 9. Solder The New Pin / Track To The Old Wire

    Secure the new ladder with Kapton ™ tape.

    Step 10. Hold And Dry

    Secure the new pad in place throughout the drying process. When you're done, remove the bracket. A quick continuity check is also recommended at this point in the process. Placing a solder mask around the edge of the pad may also help.

     

     

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    How can you tell if a circuit board is bad?

    Look for blackened parts or melted or broken parts of PCB traces, small metal lines connecting components on both sides of the board. Components can burn, and when they burn, they can smoke. Also look for swollen or discolored parts.


    What are the parts of a circuit board?

    Components
    • Battery: Provides voltage to the circuit.
    • Resistors: Control the electrical current flowing through them.
  • LED: light emitting diode.
  • Transistor: Increases the load.
  • Capacitors: These are components that can hold an electrical charge.
  • Inductor: stores charge and stops and changes current.

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