Steps to fix tracking error correlation

September 16, 2020 by Anthony Mellor


Over the past few days, some readers have encountered a known error code with correlated tracking errors. This problem can arise for several reasons. Let's discuss it now.

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Tracking error is formally defined as the standard deviation of the difference between the portfolio return and the benchmark return, or the deviation of the excess portfolio return from the benchmark. It is usually expressed both in annual terms and as a percentage.



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In finance, tracking error or active risk is an indicator of the risk of an investment portfolio based on active management decisions of the portfolio manager. It shows how well a portfolio is tracking the index by which it is measured. The best indicator is the standard deviation of the difference between portfolio and index returns.

Many portfolios are managed using a benchmark, usually an index. Some portfolios need to accurately track the performance of an index (like an index fund) prior to trading and other expenses, while others need to actively manage the portfolio, deviating slightly from the index, in order to generate active profits. Tracking error is a measure of deviation from the benchmark. The above index fund will have a tracking error close to zero, whereas an actively managed portfolio will generally have a higher tracking error. Thus, the tracking error does not contain any risk (profitability) that depends only on the market movement. In addition to the risk (return) of a certain stock selection andWhether the sector and the beta factor, it can also include the risk (return) of decisions about time to market.

Definition [edit]

When tracking error is measured historically, it is referred to as a complete or ex post error. When the model is used to predict tracking error, this is the expected tracking error. Ex post tracking errors are more useful for reporting performance, while ex ante tracking errors are commonly used by portfolio managers to control risk. There are several types of expected tracking error models, from simple stock models that use beta as the main determinant to more complex multivariate annuity models. In a portfolio factor model, the non-systematic risk (ie, the standard deviation of balances) in the investment domain is called "tracking error." This last method for calculating tracking error complements the following formulas, but the results may vary (sometimes by a factor of 2).

Formulas [edit |

where r n - r b {\ displaystyle r_ {p} -r_ {b}} - active return, which is the difference between portfolio return and benchmark return. [1] The problem of optimizing yield maximization can be solved taking into account tracking error and linear constraints by programming a second order cone:

Interpretation [edit]

Is active risk the same as tracking error?

1 Active return is the difference between a portfolio and its benchmark. Tracking error, because active risk is better known, measures the volatility of active returns. Tracking error and absolute volatility are measured in units of standard deviation.

Assuming a normal rate of return, x% active risk would mean that approximately 2/3 of the portfolio's active return (one standard deviation from the mean) should be between + x and -x by. The pennies of the median excess return and approximately 95% of the active portfolio return (two standard deviations from the mean) are + 2x to -2x percent of the median excess return.

Examples [edit]

Creating Index Funds [edit]

Why is tracking error important?

Tracking error measures the persistence of excess returns. Tracking error is also useful in determining how “active” a manager's policy is. The smaller the tracking error, the more closely the manager follows the benchmark. The higher the tracking error, the more the manager deviates from the benchmark.

Index Funds beforeare false to minimize tracking errors compared to the index they are trying to track. Standard optimization techniques can be used to solve this problem. First set ω 2 {\ displaystyle \ omega ^ {2}} to be:

tracking error correlation



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