How can I repair a damaged NTFS file system?

 

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If you recovered from a damaged ntfs file system on your computer, this article can help you solve the problem. NTFS MFT recovery Sometimes MFT (main file table) is damaged. If the Microsoft test drive (chkdsk) could not recover the MFT, run TestDisk. Select the NTFS partition in the Advanced menu, select Download, then Restore MFT.

recover corrupted ntfs file system

 

What is NTFS File System error?

Cause. One possible cause of this error is damage to the hard disk. This error can be caused by damage to the NTFS file system or damage to blocks (sectors) on the hard disk. Damaged SATA / IDE drivers (hard drives) can also affect the system's read and write capacity, causing an error.

 

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User Guide: A Step-by-Step Guide To NTFS Recovery With Examples

1. Basic Concepts For Recovering NTFS Partitions

In this case, the executable code in the MBR selects the active partition and transfers control to it so that it can start downloading the necessary files (COMMAND.COM, NTLDR, ...) according to the type of file system in this section. However, if these files are missing or damaged, the operating system can no longer be started. You think about the well-known error "NTLDR is missing ..."?

In this case, the recovery program gains access to this disk, bypassing the system boot (for example, if you boot from another hard disk or from a boot diskette), and helps to display all other files and directories on the disk and copy it to a safe place on another drive.

However, if the file system itself is damaged (root, FAT area in the FAT12 / FAT16 / FAT32 or MFT system entries in NTFS), the contents of the player may not be displayed and errors such as “MFT is corrupted.” “Reader is invalid” appear. ..

In this case, you are less likely toInstall your data than if the operating system does not boot due to the absence or damage of system files. However, recovery software usually uses a few tricks to avoid displaying all entries except for some that are always safe and allow you to save your data elsewhere.

MBR Is Corrupted

A master boot record (MBR) is created when you create the first partition on your hard drive. This is a very large data structure on the hard drive.

The main boot record contains a partition table of the hard disk and a small amount of executable code to boot. Location is always the first sector on the hard drive.

The first 446 bytes (0x1BE) are the MBR itself, the next 64 bytes are the partition table, the last two bytes in the sector are the signature word for the sector and always 0x55AA. We have an MBR for our hard disk structure:

When we try to start using equipment testing procedures, only a blank screen without messages is displayed. This isIt means that the code at the beginning of the MBR could not be executed correctly.

Therefore, error messages cannot be displayed. However, when we boot from a floppy disk, we see the FAT partition and the files it contains and can perform standard operations such as copying files, executing programs ...

Indeed, in our example only part of the MBR was damaged, which prevents the system from starting correctly. However, the partition table is safe, and we can access our disks if we boot from the operating system installed on another disk.

If we try to start now, an error message like "Operating system not found" will appear. If the computer does not start, you must first run the disk viewer and activate the first physical sector Hard disk, valid MBR or not:

The easiest way to restore or restore MBR is to run the standard Microsoft utility called FDISK with the / MBR option, for example

FDISK is a standard utility included with MS-DOS, Windows 95, 98, ME. If you have Windows NT / 2000 / XP, you can boot from a floppy diskor CD, select the recovery option during installation and start the recovery console. When you are logged in, you can run the FIXMBR command to restore the MBR.

You can also use third-party MBR recovery software or, if you created an MBR backup, restore it from there (Active @ Partition Recovery has such functions).

If you try to read it in Disk Viewer / Editor, you will receive an error message stating that the sector is not readable. In this case, the recovery program cannot help you restore the hard drive in working condition. H. Unable to restore physical partition. The only thing that can be done is to analyze and find the partitions (i.e., restore the virtual partition). If something is found, display it and give the user the opportunity to save important data elsewhere. Third-party software such as Active @ File Recovery can help here.

The Partition Will Be Deleted Or The Partition Table Will Be Damaged

Information about primary partitions and The extended partitions are contained in the partition table, a 64-byte data structure that is in the same sector as the main boot dataset (cylinder 0, head 0, sector 1).

The partition table corresponds to the standard layout, independent of the operating system. The last two bytes of the sector are the signature word for the sector and always 0x55AA.

Each entry in the partition table is 16 bytes long, so a maximum of four entries are available. Each section entry contains fields for the boot flag (BYTE), boot header (BYTE), boot sector (6 bits), boot cylinder (10 bit), system identifier (BYTE), end header (BYTE), end sector (6 bit) . , End cylinder (10 bits), relative sector (DWORD), general sector (DWORD).

Thus, the MBR loader can accept the position and size of partitions. The MBR loader searches for the “active” partition, that is, H. The partition with the 0x80 boot indicator (in our case the first one) and transfers control to the boot sector of the partition for subsequent loading. ,

If we try to start now, an error message like “Operation“No system found.” This means that the bootloader cannot determine which partition is active and which control should be transferred.

What happens if the partition is set to active (boot indicator = 0x80), but there are no system files in this partition (this can happen if, for example, we used FDISK and did not select the correct active partition)?

The bootloader tries to boot from there, crashes, tries to boot from other devices, such as a floppy disk, and if it does not reboot, an error message appears, for example, "Non-system disk or disk error".

If we try to boot now, the previous second partition (FAT) will be the first, and the bootloader will try to boot from it. And if it is not a system partition, the same error messages are displayed.

When we try to start now, the MBR bootloader tries to read and interpret zeros (or other unwanted files) as section settings and an error message such as “No operating system” is displayed.

So the second step in restoring raZdelov - start Disk Viewer and make sure that the correct partition is present in the partition table and is set as active.

If the recovery program finds it, all the parameters necessary to restore the partition entry are available in the partition table. (For more information, see the section “The boot sector of the section.”)

In this case, instead of the initial recording of the section, we will have a new one, and everything will work fine, except that we might later recall that we had important data in the original section.

If you previously backed up MBR, partition tables and volume sectors (for example, Active @ Partition Recovery and Active @ UNERASER (Unformat)), you can restore them virtually and find your data (in case if it is not already has been replaced by new data).

Some advanced recovery tools can also scan the surface of a hard drive and try to recover previously deleted partition information from the remaining information (that is, perform a virtual partition recovery). However, there is no guarantee that you mayYou can restore something.

Partition Boot Sector Is Damaged

The boot sector of the partition contains information that the file system uses to access the volume. On a PC, the master boot record uses the boot sector of the partition in the system partition to load the kernel files of the operating system. Partition boot sector is the first partition sector.

The FAT boot sector is different, but its BPB contains parameters similar to those mentioned above. An additional copy of this sector is not saved, therefore recovery in FAT is twice as successful as in NTFS.

When you try to start, the message "Non-system disk" or "Disk error ..." is displayed. Once we have not booted from this and from the floppy disk, the partition can no longer be started.

Since a normally functioning access system depends on the boot sector, it is strongly recommended that you run disk analysis tools such as CHKDSK regularly and back up all data files to protect yourself. data loss in case you have access to it. sweat hide volume

Using tools such as Active @ Partition Recovery and Active @ UNERASER, you can back up MBR, partition tables, and boot sectors of volumes so that at any time you can restore partition information for some reason and cannot run files / folders in this section.

In NTFS, a copy of the boot sector is stored in the middle or at the end of the volume. You can boot from bootable discs or CD-ROMs, select a recovery option during installation, and start the recovery console. If you are logged in, you can run the FIXBOOT command to try to restore the boot sector.

Missing or damaged system

 

 

How do I fix the first NTFS boot sector is unreadable or corrupt?

You can easily restore unreadable NTFS boot sectors by reformatting the hard drive. Reformatting the hard disk will erase the important data stored on it. Therefore, it is recommended that you recover data from an unreadable NTFS partition before reformatting it.

How do I run chkdsk on NTFS?

Follow these steps:
  1. Insert the original Windows CD.
  2. Restart your computer and boot from disk.
  3. Click Restore your computer.
  4. Select an operating system from the list.
  5. Click Continue.
  6. Select a command line.
  7. When opening, enter the following command: chkdsk C: / f / r.
  8. Press the enter key.

 

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